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Parallelism in Deductive Inference on Graph Structures


In this paper we study the role of functioning axioms on the deductive power of the system obtained from the ZermeloFraenkel ZF system by the introduction of ?terms with the possibility of using them as a scheme for the substitution axiom.


Hypotheticaldeductive analysis is an alternative to both induction and deduction, the difference between which is considered less important.


The hypotheticaldeductive approach requires a scientist to abandon the synthetic theory of evolution in favor of the epigenetic theory.


Quasiformal deductive system for fuzzy propositional calculus

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 In this artical, two criterions of scientific Discovery are expressed. The principle of incompleteness of knowldge storge is demonstrated, and it is shown that a deductive machine can be both logically nonampliative and expistemically ampliative. On the basis of principle of unsolvability of Hume's problem, we elucide that it is fesible to establish a inductive machine of discovery.  本文闡述了科學發現的兩個判據,在知識存貯有劣性原理的基礎上,提出了知識存貯不完全性原理,指出存在一類邏輯上具有非放大性,但認識論上具有放大性的演繹發現機器。在休謨問題邏輯學范圍內不可解原理的基礎上,論證了不存在通用的歸納發現機器,但建立局部合理的、有效的、完備的歸納發現機器是可行的。最后,本文描述了科學發現機器的結構,并在文獻的基礎上,描述了一種同時具有發生與評價功能的歸納發現機器并論證了它的合理性。  : in order to test the new model theory of deductive reasoning presented by JohnsonLairdthe 103 college students were asked to complete 12 types of deductive reasoning tasks divided in 3 kinds ofdistinctive contexts. In each context, there were 2 types of major premise which included inclusive disjunctionand exclusive disjunction and there were 2 types of minior premise which included affirmtive form and negative form The results showed that the college students' reasoning didn't coincide with... : in order to test the new model theory of deductive reasoning presented by JohnsonLairdthe 103 college students were asked to complete 12 types of deductive reasoning tasks divided in 3 kinds ofdistinctive contexts. In each context, there were 2 types of major premise which included inclusive disjunctionand exclusive disjunction and there were 2 types of minior premise which included affirmtive form and negative form The results showed that the college students' reasoning didn't coincide with the prediction of thenew model theory. Then,how to propess the premise semantic in deductive reasoning was discussed in the present paper.  本研究運用三種不同情境內容的可兼析取和不可兼析取共6種大前提,加上肯定和否定兩種形式的小前提,構成12個演繹推理題,對103名大學生進行了測試,以檢驗JohsonLaird(1992)提出的演繹推理的新模式理論.結果證明,大學生的推理并不符合新模式理論的預測.本研究就被試在演繹推理中如何對前提進行語義加工的問題進行了討論.  The issue of the rationality of inductive inference was raised by David Hume at first. He deemed that even though the premise of inductive inference was authentic, it was not the guarantee of authenticity of conclusion. Philosophers and logicians have tried quite a few ways to solve the issue, that is, to do deductive proof ; to do inductive proof with the help of the uniformity of the world; and so on. Marxism deems that though induction is not an inexorable inference and the authenticity of its premise... The issue of the rationality of inductive inference was raised by David Hume at first. He deemed that even though the premise of inductive inference was authentic, it was not the guarantee of authenticity of conclusion. Philosophers and logicians have tried quite a few ways to solve the issue, that is, to do deductive proof ; to do inductive proof with the help of the uniformity of the world; and so on. Marxism deems that though induction is not an inexorable inference and the authenticity of its premise could not guarantee the authenticity of its conclusion, one could not say that inductive inference is not rational at all.  歸納合理性問題最初是由休謨提出的。對這一問題，哲學家和邏輯學家提出了種種解決途徑：或借助概率弱化歸納推理的結論，企圖對之作演繹論證；或借“世界齊一性”對之作歸納證明；或訴諸無知的解決方式；或釜底抽薪的解決方式。馬克思主義認為，歸納雖然不是一種必然性的推理，它的前提的真實不能保證它的結論必然真實，但這并不等于說，歸納推理就是一種毫無根據的推理。   << 更多相關文摘 
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